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Scientific Journal Publications

Set out below are examples of NBU publications.


Mwebaze, P., Marris, G.C., Brown, M., MacLeod, A., Jones, G. and Budge, G.E., (2018) Measuring public perception and preferences for ecosystem services: A case study of bee pollination in the UK. Land Use Policy, 71, pp.355-362.


Budge GE, Hodgetts J, Jones EP, Ostoja Starzewski JC, Hall J, Tomkies V, et al. (2017) The invasion, provenance and diversity of Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in Great Britain. PLoS ONE 12(9): e0185172. (pdf)

Keeling, M. J., Franklin, D. N., Samik Datta , Brown M. A., Budge G, E., (2017) Predicting the spread of the Asian hornet (Vespa velutina) following its incursion into Great Britain, Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 6240 doi:10.1038/s41598-017-06212-0 (pdf)

Gillespie, M. A. K., Baude, M., Biesmeijer, J., Boatman, N., Budge, G. E., Crowe, A., Memmott, J., Morton, R. D., Pietravalle, S., Potts, S. G., Senapathi, D., Smart, S. M. and Kunin, W. E. (2017), A method for the objective selection of landscape-scale study regions and sites at the national level. Methods Ecol Evol. doi:10.1111/2041-210X.12779

Keeling M.J., Datta S., Franklin D. N., Flatman I., Wattam A., Brown M., Budge G.E. (2017) Efficient use of sentinel sites: detection of invasive honeybee pests and diseases in the UK. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 14: 20160908. ( pdf )

Franklin, D.N., Brown, M.A., Datta, S., Cuthbertson, A.G., Budge, G.E. and Keeling, M.J., (2017) Invasion dynamics of Asian hornet, Vespa velutina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): a case study of a commune in south-west France. Applied Entomology and Zoology, pp.1-9. (pdf)

Jacques, A., et al (2017) A pan-European epidemiological study reveals honey bee colony survival depends on beekeeper education and disease control. PloS ONE 12(3): e0172591.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172591 (pdf)

Hernandez, M. et al. (2017) Microsporidia Infection Impacts the Host Cell's Cycle and Reduces Host Cell Apoptosis. PLoS ONE 12(2): e0170183. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0170183 pdf


Giles E. Budge, Ian Adams, Richard Thwaites, Stéphane Pietravalle, Georgia C. Drew, Gregory D.D. Hurst, Victoria Tomkies, Neil Boonham, Mike Brown (2016) Identifying bacterial predictors of honey bee health, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 141:41–44. pdf

Chauzat, M.P., et al (2016) Risk Indicators affecting honeybee colony survival in Europe: one year of surveillance, Apidologie 47: 348-378 pdf

Porrini C, Mutinelli F, Bortolotti L, Granato A, Laurenson L, Roberts K, et al. (2016) The Status of Honey Bee Health in Italy: Results from the Nationwide Bee Monitoring Network. PLoS ONE 11(5): e0155411. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155411 pdf

Campbell, Ewan M., et al (2016). Transcriptome analysis of the synganglion from the honey bee mite, Varroa destructor and RNAi knockdown of neural peptide targets. Insect biochemistry and molecular biology.


Delaplane, KS., Pietravalle, S., Brown, MA., Budge, GE (2015) Honey Bee Colonies Headed by Hyperpolyandrous Queens Have Improved Brood Rearing Efficiency and Lower Infestation Rates of Parasitic Varroa Mites. PLoS ONE 10(12): e0142985. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.014298 pdf

DELMIGLIO, C., FAN, Q. H., GEORGE, S., WARD, L., BUDGE, G., FLYNN, A., KUMARASINGHE, L., (2015) Development and evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for the Detection of Acarapis woodi (tracheal mites) in Apis mellifera pdf

Budge, G.E. et al. (2015) Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape. Sci. Rep. 5, 12574; doi: 10.1038/srep12574 pdf 

Budge, G.E., Pietravalle, S., Brown, M., Laurenson, L., Jones, B., Tomkies, V., Delaplane, K.S. (2015) Pathogens as Predictors of Honey Bee Colony Strength in England and Wales. PLoS ONE 10(7): e0133228. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133228. pdf

Roberts, K. E., Evison, S. E. F., Baer, B. & Hughes, W. O. H. "The cost of promiscuity: sexual transmission of Nosema microsporidian parasites in polyandrous honey bees".  Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 10982 doi:10.1038/srep10982 pdf


Roberts, K. E., and Hughes, W. O. H. "Horizontal transmission of a parasite is influenced by infected host phenotype and density." Parasitology (2014): 1-11.

Thompson, Catherine E., et al. "Parasite Pressures on Feral Honey Bees (Apis mellifera sp.)." PloS one 9.8 (2014): e105164 pdf

Roberts, K. E., Hughes, W. O. H., (2014) Immunosenescence and resistance to parasite infection in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. pdf

Morrissey, B., et al (2014) Biogeography of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood, using a new MLST scheme. Environmental Microbiology.

Budge, G., Shirley, M. D. F., Jones, B., Quill, E., Tomkies, V., Feil, E. J., Brown, M. A., Haynes, E. G., (2014) Molecular epidemiology and population structure of the honey bee brood pathogen Melissococcus plutonius. ISME. pdf


Haynes, E., Helgason, T., Young, J. P. W., Thwaites, R. and Budge, G. E. (2013), A typing scheme for the honeybee pathogen Melissococcus plutonius allows detection of disease transmission events and a study of the distribution of variants. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 5: 525–529 pdf

MILL, A.C., RUSHTON, S.P., SHIRLEY, M.D,, SMITH, G.C., MASON, P., BROWN, M.A., BUDGE, G.E.Clustering, persistence and control of a pollinator brood disease: Epidemiology of American Foulbrood.
Further supporting information.

Polce C, Termansen M, Aguirre-Gutie´rrez J, Boatman ND, Budge GE, et al. (2013) Species Distribution Models for Crop Pollination: A Modelling Framework Applied to Great Britain. PLoS ONE 8(10): e76308. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076308 (PDF)

DATTA, S., BULL, J.C., BUDGE, G.E., KEELING, M.J.  Modelling the spread of American foulbrood in honeybees. Interface. Journal of the Royal Society 10: 20130650. (PDF)

More information on the model that charts the spread of American foulbrood can be viewed on the following Youtube link: 

A. G. S. CUTHBERTSON*, M. E. WAKEFIELD, M. E. POWELL, G. MARRIS, H. ANDERSON, G. E. BUDGE, J. J.MATHERS, L. F. BLACKBURN, M. A. BROWNThe small hive beetle Aethina tumida: A review of its biology and control measures. Current Zoology 59 (5): 644–653, 2013 (PDF)

Evans, J.D., Schwarz, R., Chen, Y.P., Budge, G., et al. (2013) - Standard methods for molecular research in Apis melífera. Journal of Apicultural Research. ISSN 0021-8839. 52:4, p. 1-53

FORSGREN, E., BUDGE, G. E., CHARRIERE, J-D., HORNITZKY, M. A. Z. Standard methods for European foulbrood research. Journal of Apicultural Research (pdf)

DE GRAAF, D. C., ALIPPI, A. M., ANTUNEZ, K., ARONSTEIN, K. A., BUDGE, G. E., DE KOKER, D., DE SMET, L., DINGMAN, D. W., EVANS, J. D., FOSTER, L. J., FUNFHAUS, A., GARCIA-GONZALEZ, E., GREGORC, A., HUMAN, H., MURRAY, K. D., NGUYEN, B. K., POPPINGA, L., SPIVAK, M., VANENGELSDORP, D., WILKINS, S., GENERSCH, E. Standard methods for American foulbrood research.   Journal of Apicultural Research (pdf)

VANBERGEN, A. et al.    Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators.  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment - Review Vol 11 (5): 251-259


CUTHBERTSON, A.G.S., MATHERS, J.J., BLACKBURN, L.F., POWELL, M.E., MARRIS, G., PIETRAVALLE, S., BROWN, M.A., BUDGE, G.E. Screening commercially available biocontrol agents for the control of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in the UK. Insects, 3(3), 719-726. (pdf)

MARTIN, S.J., HIGHFIELD, A.C., BRETTELL, L., VILLALOBOS, E.M., BUDGE, G.E., POWELL, M.,NIKAIDO, S., SCHROEDER, D.C.  Global Honey Bee Viral Landscape Altered by a Parasitic Mite. Science, Vol 336 1304-1306

VAN DER ZEE, R., et al.  Managed honey bee colony losses in Canada, China, Europe, Israel and Turkey, for the winters of 2008-9 and 2009-10. Journal of Apicultural Research. Vol. 51 (1) pp. 100 - 114 (pdf)

EVISON, S. E. F., ROBERTS, K.E., LAURENSEN, L., PIETRAVALLE, S., HUI, J., BIESMEIJER, J.C., SMITH, J.E., BUDGE, G.E., HUGHES, W.O.H.  Pervasiveness of parasites in pollinators. PLOS ONE


VANENGELSDORP, D., WILKINS,S., PIETRAVALLE,S., BUDGE,G.E., et al., (2011): Calculating and reporting managed honey bee losses. In: Honey Bee Colony Health Challenges and Sustainable Solutions, edited by J.A.Yoder, pp. 229-236. CRC Press.

GLOVER, R.H.., ADAMS, I.P., BUDGE, G.E., WILKINS, S., BOONHAM, N. (2011). Detection of honey bee (Apis mellifera) viruses with an oligonucleotide microarray. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 107: 216-219.(PDF)

RICHARDS, E.H., JONES, B., BOWMAN, A. (2011). Salivary secretions from the honeybee mite, Varroa destructor: effects on insect haemocytes and preliminary biochemical characterization. Parasitology, 138: 602–608. (pdf)


BUDGE, G.E., BARRETT, B., JONES, B., PIETRAVALLE, S., MARRIS, G.C., CHANTAWANNAKUL, P., THWAITES, R., HALL, J., CUTHBERTSON, A.G.S., BROWN, M.A. (2010). The occurrence of Melissococcus plutonius in healthy colonies of Apis mellifera and the efficacy of European foulbrood control measures. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 105: 164-170. (PDF)

CAMPBELL, E., BUDGE, G.E., BOWMAN, A. (2010). Gene-knockdown in the honey bee mite Varroa destructor by a non-invasive approach: studies on a glutathione S-transferase. Parasites and Vectors, 3: 73. (pdf)

CUTHBERTSON, A.G.S., MATHERS, J.J., BLACKBURN, L.F. & MARRIS, G. (2010) Small Hive Beetle: the next threat to British honey bees. Biologist, 57: 35-39. (pdf)

GRANATO, A., BUDGE, G.E., PAPANASTASIOU, I., ROINIOTI, E., CALDON, M., FALCARO, C., GALLINA, A., MUTINELLI, F. (2010). Sudden deaths and colony population decline in Greek honey bee colonies. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 105: 164-170. (pdf)

DE MIRANDA, J.R., DAINAT, B., LOCKE, B., CORDONI, G., BERTHOUD, H., GAUTHIER, L., NEUMANN, P., BUDGE, G.E., BALL, B.V. & STOLTZ, D.B. (2010). Genetic characterisation of slow paralysis virus of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Journal of General Virology, 91: 2524-2530. (pdf)

DE MIRANDA, J.R., CORDONI, G., BUDGE, G.E. (2010). The Acute bee paralysis virus - Kashmir bee virus - Israeli acute paralysis virus complex. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 103: 30-37. (pdf)

KAJOBE, R., MARRIS, G., BUDGE, G.E, LAURENSON, L., CORDONI, G., JONES, B., WILKINS, S., Cuthbertson, A.G.S. & Brown, M.A.. (2010). First molecular detection of viral pathogens in Ugandan honey bees: occurrence, prevalence and distribution patterns. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 104: 153-156. (PDF)

NGUYEN, B.K.A., VAN DER ZEE, R.B.,  VEJSNAES, F.C., WILKINS, S., LE CONTE, Y.E. & RITTER W.F. (2010) COLOSS Working Group 1. Monitoring and Diagnosis. Journal Apicultural Research, 49: 97-99.

POTTS, S.G., ROBERTS, S.P.M., DEAN, R., MARRIS, G.C., BROWN, M.A., JONES, R., NEUMANN, P. & SETTELE, J. (2010) Declines of managed honeybees and beekeepers in Europe. Journal of Apicultural Research, 49: 15-22. (pdf)


CUTHBERTSON, A.G.S. & BROWN, M.A. (2009). Issues affecting British honey bee biodiversity and the need for conservation of this important ecological component. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6: 695-699. (PDF)

TOMKIES, V., FLINT, J., JOHNSON, G., WAITE, R., WILKINS, S., DANKS, C., WATKINS, M., CUTHBERTSON, A.G.S., CARPANA, E., MARRIS, G., BUDGE, G. & BROWN, M.A. (2009). Development and validation of a novel field test kit for European foulbrood Apidologie, 40: 63-72. (PDF)

ADAMS, S.J., FUSSELL, R.J., DICKINSON, M., WILKINS, S. & SHARMAN, M. (2009). Study of the depletion of lincomycin residues in honey extracted from treated honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies and the effect of the shook swarm procedure Analytica Chimica Acta, 637: 315-320.

BECKER, R. VERGNET, C. MAUS, C. PISTORIUS, J. TORNIER, I. & WILKINS, S. (2009) Proposal of the ICPBR Bee Brood Group for testing and assessing potential side effects from the use of plant protection products on honey bee brood. Julius-Kuhn-Archiv, 423: 43-44.


ADAMS, S.J., HEINRICH, K., FUSSELL, R.J., WILKINS, S., THOMPSON, H.M., ASHWIN H.M. & SHARMAN, M. (2008). Study of the distribution and depletion of Chloramphenicol residues in bee products extracted from treated honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. Apidologie, 39: 537-546. (pdf)

BAKER, R.H.A., BLACK, R., COPP, G.H., HAYSOM, K.A., HULME, P.E., THOMAS, M.B., BROWN, A., BROWN, M., CANNON, R.J.C., ELLIS, J., ELLIS, M., FERRIS, R., GLAVES, P., GOZLAN, R.E.,HOLT, J., HOWE, L., KNIGHT, J.D., MACLEOD, A., MOORE, N.P., MUMFORD, J.D., MURPHY, S.T., PARROTT, D., SANSFORD, S.E., SMITH, G.C., ST-HILAIRE, S., & WARD, N.L. The UK risk assessment scheme for all non-native species (2008). In: Rabitsch, W., F. Essl & F. Klingenstein (Eds.): Biological Invasions - from Ecology to Conservation. Neobiota, 7: 46-57 (pdf)

CUTHBERTSON, A.G.S, MATHERS, J.J., BLACKBURN, L.F., WAKEFIELD, M.E., COLLINS, L.E., LUO, W. & BROWN, M.A. (2008). Maintaining Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) under quarantine laboratory conditions in the UK and preliminary observations on its behaviour. Journal of Apicultural Research, 47: 192-193.

GARRIDO, C., CARBÚ, M., FERNÁNDEZ-ACERO, J. F., BOONHAM, N., COLYER, A., CANTORAL, J.M., & BUDGE G.E. (2008). Isolation and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum spp. causing anthracnose of strawberry in south west Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 120: 409-415.


ADAMS, S.J., HEINRICH, K., HETMANSKI, M., FUSSELL, R.J., WILKINS, S., THOMPSON, H.M. & SHARMAN, M. (2007). Study of the depletion of tylosin residues in honey extracted from treated honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies and the effect of the shook swarm procedure. Apidologie, 38: 315-322. (pdf)

THOMPSON, H.M., WILKINS, S., BATTERSBY, A.H., WAITE, R.J. & WILKINSON, D. (2007). Modelling long-term effects of IGRs on honey bee colonies. Pest Management Science, 63: 1081-1084. (pdf)

WARD, L., BROWN, M., NEUMANN, P., WILKINS, S., PETTIS, J., BOONHAM, N.(2007). A DNA method for screening hive debris for the presence of small hive beetle Aethina tumida. Apidologie, 38, 272-280. (pdf)

WARD, L., WAITE, R., BOONHAM, N., FISHER, T., PESCOD, K., THOMPSON, H., CHANTAWANNAKUL, P., BROWN, M. (2007). First detection of Kashmir Bee Virus in the UK using real-time PCR. Apidologie, 38: 181-190. (pdf)

WILKINS, S., BROWN, M.A. & CUTHBERTSON, A.G.S. (2007). The incidence of honey bee pests and diseases in England and Wales. Pest Management Science, 63: 1062-1068. (pdf)


CHANTAWANNAKUL, P., WARD, L., BOONHAM, N., & BROWN, M.A. (2006). A Scientific Note on the Detection of Honeybee Viruses Using real-time PCR (TaqMan) in Varroa Mites Collected from a Thai Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Apiary. Journal of invertebrate pathology, 91: 69-73. (pdf)

CUTHBERTSON, A.G.S., BROWN, M.A. (2006). The value of the honey bee and the need for it to be protected. Biodiversity news, 35: 14.

CUTHBERTSON, A.G.S. & BROWN, M.A. (2006). Vital Pollinators: Honey bees in apple orchards. Biologist, 53: 78-81. (pdf)

De Graaf, D., Alippi, A., Brown, M.A., Evans, J., Gregorc, A., Hornitzky, M., Pernal, S., Schuch, D., Titera, T., Tomkies, V. & Ritter, W. (2006). Diagnosis of American foul brood: review of diagnostic methods. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 43: 583-590. (pdf)

THOMPSON, H., WAITE, R.J., WILKINS, S., BROWN, M A., BIGWOOD, T., SHAW, M., RIDGWAY, C. & SHARMAN, M. (2006). Effects of shook swarm and supplementary feeding on oxytetracycline levels in honey extracted from treated colonies. Apidologie, 37: 51-57. (pdf)


THOMPSON, H., WAITE, R.J., WILKINS, S., BROWN, M. A., BIGWOOD, T., SHAW, M., RIDGWAY, C. & SHARMAN, M. (2005). Effects of European foulbrood treatment regime on oxytetracycline levels in honey extracted from treated honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies and toxicity to brood. Food Additives and Contaminants, 22: 573-578.


THOMPSON, H.M., WILKINS, S., BATTERSBY, A.H., WAITE, R.J. & WILKINSON, D. (2004). The effects of four insect growth regulating (IGR) insecticides on honeybee (Apis mellifera) (L.) colony development, queen rearing and drone sperm production. Ecotoxicology, 14: 757-769.


THOMPSON, H. M. (2003). Behavioural effects of pesticides in bees – their potential for use in risk assessment. Ecotoxicology, 12: 317-330.

THOMPSON, H., BALL, R., BROWN, M. & BEW, M. (2003). Varroa destructor resistance to pyrethroid treatments in the UK. Bulletin of Insectology, 56: 175-181.

THOMPSON, H. & WILKINS, S. (2003). Assessment of the synergy and repellency of pyrethroid/fungicide mixtures. Bulletin of Insectology, 56: 1-4.

WAITE, R. J., BROWN, M. A., THOMPSON, H. M. & BEW, M. H. (2003). Controlling European foulbrood with the shook swarm method and oxytetracycline in the UK. Apidologie, 34: 569-575.

WAITE, R. J., BROWN, M. A. & THOMPSON, H. M. (2003). Hygienic behaviour in honey bees in the UK: a preliminary study. Bee World, 84: 19-26.

WAITE, R.J., JACKSON, S.F. & THOMPSON, H.M. (2003). Preliminary investigations into possible resistance to oxytetracycline in Melissococcus plutonius, a pathogen of honeybee larvae. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 36: 20-24.


BROWN, M. A., THOMPSON, H. M. & BEW, M. H. (2002). Risks to UK beekeeping from the parasitic mite Tropilaelaps clareae and the small hive beetle Aethina tumida. Bee World, 83: 151-164.

THOMPSON, H. M., BROWN, M. A., BALL, R.F. & BEW, M. H. (2002). First report of Varroa destructor resistance to pyrethroids in the UK. Apidologie, 33: 357-366.

WILKINSON, D. & BROWN, M.A. (2002). Rearing queen honey bees in a queenright colony. American Bee Journal, 142: 270-274.

WILKINSON, D. & SMITH, G.C. (2002). A model of the mite parasite, Varroa destructor, on honeybees (Apis mellifera) to investigate parameters important to mite population growth. Ecological Modelling, 148: 263-275.

WILKINSON, D. & SMITH, G.C. (2002). Modelling the efficiency of sampling and trapping Varroa destructor in the drone brood of honey bees (Apis mellifera). American Bee Journal, 142: 209-212.


LEWIS, G.B., GOUGH, H.J., KUNAST, C., THOMPSON, H.M. & STEVENSON, J.H. (2001). The use of toxic standards in the honey bee acute toxicity test. In: Hazards of Pesticides to Bees, Proceedings of the 7th ICPBR Bee Protection Symposium, Avignon. Edited by Belzunces, L.P., Pelissier,C. & Lewis, G.B., published by INRA, Paris.

THOMPSON, H. M. (2001). Assessing the exposure and toxicity of pesticides to bumblebees. Apidologie, 4: 305-322.

THOMPSON, H.M. (2001). Assessing the exposure and toxicity of pesticides to bumble bees. In: Hazards of Pesticides to Bees, Proceedings of the 7th ICPBR Bee Protection Symposium, Avignon. Edited by Belzunces, L.P., Pelissier, C. & Lewis, G.B., published by INRA, Paris.

THOMPSON, H.M. & BARRETT, K.A. (2001). Assessing the effects of a glasshouse application of a novel insect growth regulator on bumble bee colonies. In: Hazards of Pesticides to Bees, Proceedings of the 7th ICPBR Bee Protection Symposium, Avignon. Edited by Belzunces, L.P., Pelissier, C. & Lewis, G.B., published by INRA, Paris.

THOMPSON, H.M. & BROWN, M.A. (2001). Is contact colony treatment an effective control for European foulbrood? Bee World, 82: 30-138.

THOMPSON, H.M. & FOLKARD-WARD, H. (2001). Toxicity of realistic combinations of pyrethroids and fungicides to honeybees. In: Hazards of Pesticides to Bees, Proceedings of the 7th ICPBR Bee Protection Symposium, Avignon. Edited by Belzunces, L.P., Pelissier, C. & Lewis, G.B., published by INRA, Paris.

WILKINSON, P.D., THOMPSON, H.M. & SMITH, G.C. (2001) Modelling biological approaches to controlling varroa populations. American Bee Journal, 141: 511-516


THOMPSON, H.M. & BARNETT, E.A. (2000). Pesticides and Honeybees, Central Association of Beekeepers.


THOMPSON, H.M. & BROWN, M. (1999). The role of the National Bee Unit in controlling statutory bee diseases. Bee World, 80: 132-139.

THOMPSON, H.M. & HUNT, L.V. (1999). Extrapolating from honeybees to bumble bees in pesticide risk assessment. Ecotoxicology, 8: 147-166.